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Navigating The Great Unwind Of Central Bank Assets
Central banks grapple with shrinking their $20 trillion balance sheets, balancing market stability and quantitative tightening risks.
Since the 2009 Global Financial Crisis and the end of last year, the cumulative net asset purchases by key central banks—the US Federal Reserve, European Central Bank, Bank of England, and Bank of Japan—have reached an astounding $20 trillion. This vast accumulation, a response initially to the financial crisis and later to the pandemic's economic shocks, is now at a crossroads. The imperative is clear: These balance sheets must be reduced, but the path to achieving this without destabilizing financial markets is fraught with complexity.
The Mechanics And Risks Of Quantitative Tightening
Quantitative tightening (QT) has emerged as the primary strategy for reducing central bank balance sheets. By allowing bonds to expire without renewal and actively selling assets, as the Bank of England is doing, central banks are attempting to reverse the liquidity surge instigated by quantitative easing.
However, this process is not without its risks. The Federal Reserve's assets, for instance, currently equate to nearly 30% of US GDP. Such oversized balance sheets carry risks, including market distortion, increased dependency on central banks, and potentially risky behavior incentivized by easy liquidity, as Andrew Hauser of the BoE recently highlighted.
Financial losses are another concern. Rising interest rates devalue bond portfolios and increase the cost of bank reserves. The Bank of England, for example, anticipates a net loss exceeding £150 billion over the next decade as it unwinds its QE measures. These losses, have to be covered by the taxpayer, tarnishing the image of central banks and raising questions about their role in financing government deficits.
Balancing Act: Shrinking Assets Without Market Upheaval
The key challenge for central banks is to minimize their balance sheet size without triggering market instability. This task is complicated by high government deficits and the likelihood of increased government bond issuance, especially in the US. Reducing balance sheet size too rapidly or abruptly could spike yields and potentially trigger economic disruptions, as seen in the Fed's 2019 QT efforts.
The optimal size of central bank balance sheets remains a topic of debate. They should be substantial enough to satisfy the demand for reserves but not so large as to spur unnecessary risks. For instance, the US banking system's minimum comfortable reserve level is estimated at around $2.5 trillion, indicating that the end of QT is not imminent.
The Road Ahead: Cautious Reduction And Policy Reevaluation
Central banks are now tasked with a delicate balancing act: Reducing their holdings responsibly over time while navigating monetary and financial policy risks. This process requires careful calibration and a long-term perspective. Additionally, the challenges of asset reduction might prompt a reevaluation of central banks' asset purchasing strategies in future crises.
In conclusion, while central banks have played a pivotal role in stabilizing economies during crises, the time has come to responsibly and cautiously unwind these measures. The journey will be complex and requires a nuanced approach to ensure financial stability and economic health.
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