The Evolution And Mechanics Of NFTs

NFTs, used to represent everything from art to in-game items, have proven immensely popular. While Ethereum remains dominant, alternative blockchains offer competitive fees and speeds.

The Evolution And Mechanics Of NFTs

Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) are unique or limited edition, indivisible blockchain tokens. Their properties make them ideal for representing digital collectibles and other unusual items, allowing rare virtual and physical assets to be stored and traded on the blockchain.

Although the roots of NFTs can be traced back to 2014, in their current incarnation they only emerged around 2016. The digitization of assets such as real estate, securities, and in-game items has helped to popularize NFTs. However, it is the digital art movement that has really helped to turn NFTs into a mainstream technology.

Axie Infinity NFT game
The popular play-to-earn game Axie Infinity uses NFTs to represent characters and in-game items.

Some of the most sought-after tokens, such as CryptoPunks and Bored Apes, have fetched astonishing prices at auction, with the rarest examples selling for millions of dollars. Even in the current depressed market, art and collectibles volumes for the first week of August 2023 were $163 million from a total of $178 million in NFT sales.

NFT Creation

While NFT creation can be a highly technical process, there are now popular platforms that allow anyone to create and trade tokens easily. This simply involves setting up a blockchain wallet (like MetaMask), selecting the content for tokenization (e.g. a piece of digital art), and following a straightforward set of steps on an appropriate marketplace.

Different marketplaces will support different chains. OpenSea, for instance, accommodates Ethereum, Polygon, Klaytn, Solana, Arbitrum, Optimism, Avalanche, BNB, Zora, and Base blockchains. Others may be more limited.

Recent data from The Block highlighted top-performing blockchain networks in terms of NFT trading:

  • Ethereum leading at $51.82 million.
  • Solana registering $6.2 million.
  • ImmutableX with $5.48 million.
Chart NFT trade volume by chain
NFT trade volume by chain (Source: The

Potential NFT creators should acquaint themselves with the features, pros, and cons of prominent NFT platforms. For example, some marketplaces enforce royalties on secondary sales for creators, others do not. OpenSea, one of the most popular marketplaces, allows free NFT creation. However, selling entails a 2.5% commission on the token price for OpenSea, plus whatever royalties are specified by the creator. Gas fees will also need to be paid for certain operations.

Solana's NFT Landscape

While Ethereum is a popular platform foor NFTs, Solana has been a rising star in the ecosystem, thanks in part to its low transaction fees ($0.00025) and throughput. Solanart is the principal marketplace for NFT dealings on Solana. Following submission and approval of NFT concepts, the platform collaborates with creators. Notably, the seller incurs a 3% transaction fee.

Popular projects include SolPunks, available on Solanart, which draws inspiration from the renowned CryptoPunks collection.

SolPunks collection

Emerging NFT Platforms: Avalanche, Flow, And Beyond

As NFTs gained traction, alternative blockchains emerged to challenge Ethereum's dominance, though none have yet been successful:

  1. Avalanche (AVAX): The brainchild of Emin Gün Sirer from Cornell University, Avalanche boasts of 6,500 transactions per second. Marketplaces like NFTrade and Kalao cater to AVAX NFTs.
  2. Flow: Tailored for dApps, NFT activities, and games, Flow NFTs can be traded on platforms like Viv3 and Top Expo.
  3. Polygon: Designed to address Ethereum's constraints, Polygon enables rapid and low-cost transactions. Polygon NFTs can be traded on OpenSea.

While Ethereum remains an NFT heavyweight, newer entrants like Solana and Polygon are broadening out the space with affordable and swift transactions. These tokens are now well established, and even sold by major auction houses. Morgan Stanley analysts project the NFT market's value could eclipse $300 billion by 2030.

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